Result list 9 November 2019

The results of our November 9 sale is now online. Unsold items can be obtained in our aftersale until December 8 (first come, first served). .

Lotnumber: 616
ZEELAND. MIDDELBURG. Transport share. black. No 78. While the Spanish and French were already active from the late 15th century in the Atlantic Ocean, it was only in the early 17th century before the Dutch would show any interest. Until then, they could rely on the safe trade of bulk goods within Europe(mainly fur and grain), but due to the war with Spain they had to look for new markets. Some earlier journeys to the Gold Coast had proven to be very profitable. Willem Usselincx, who had made fortune on the colonies, and Petrus Plancius, a geographicalscientist who had fled Antwerp after 1685, advocated the idea of setting up a company from the beginning of the 17th century. However, a peace treaty with Spain had forced the Dutch to give up their ambitions in the Atlantic area and it would last until 1621, when the Dutch West Indian Company was born. On June 3, 1621 the company was granted a first 24-year charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies (Caribbean) and given jurisdiction over the African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean and North America. The main problem from the beginning consisted in convincing investors as the experience with the East Indian Company had taught them that investing abroad could be risky. This reluctance to invest would last until 1623, when the companyhad gathered enough working capital to deploy its activities. Afterwards, the capital would be increased 4 times between 1623 and 1629 to reach an amount of 17,9 million guilders, the final capital amount until its (first) liquidation in 1674. From theoutset, the company had the intended purpose of eliminating competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. Its first aim was Brazil, where the company was continuously involved in a war with the Spanish, Portuguese and the original local planters ("moradores"). Until 1636 the company did not succeed in gaining control, and the company's debts amounted to 18 million guilders. Only during a short period of the governorship of Johan Maurits, did the company manage to keep control of the area, and it appeared to be profitable, but most of the money was returned to the shareholders and not reinvested. From 1645 new revolts started, and finally in 1654 the Dutch territory in Brazil was returned to the Portuguese. In Africa, trading posts were established on the Gold Coast (now Ghana). The activities appeared to be profitable, and during the period 1623-1636 up to 14 million guilders of goods (mainly gold) had been exported to the Republic. However, from 1640 onwards, the company had to face fierce competition from the English, and from 1650 onwards the company focused on the slave trade. Between 1658 and 1674 the company exported 53 600 slaves from Africa, compared with 3 800 during the period 1646-1657. This success resulted in competition and even military action from the English, but after the peace of Breda (1667) the company succeeded in consolidating its position in Africa. In North-America, fur was the most important export commodity in New Netherland, but it did not appear to be a great success. This was due to a fierce rivalry with the English, who conquered New Netherland in 1664, and in part due to the difficulty of attracting settlers. The largest success for the West Indian Company is its history was the seizure by Piet Heyn in 1628 of the Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain. The value of the loot amounted to 11,5 million guilders, of which 75% was returnedto the shareholders. All in all, due to the continuous war and the loss of colonies, the company wasn't a great financial success and by 1649 its debt already amounted to 36 million guilders. The original GWC folded in 1674, and a new, reorganised company was formed. Piracy was abandoned, and the company concentrated mainly on the African slave trade and its remaining possessions in Suriname and the Antilles. However, it eventually had to give up its monopoly position. It continuously needed working capital, and only during the bubble of 1720 did it succeed in increasing its capital substantially. Due to this lack of money, important investments in ships were abandoned and the company's role was soon restricted of purely levying taxes. After the English took control of Suriname for several years in the 1780s, the West Indian Company appeared unable to recover. In 1791, the company's stock was sold to the Dutch government, and its territories were placed under Dutch government control. What we offer is a transport share contract at the moment of the dissolution of the company. Jacob Carel Martens, who also signed the piece, asks J.B. Bomme to bring this share to the "Staten Generaal der Vereenigde Nederlanden" trying to get as much as possible money for it. The onlyknown scripophily from the Dutch West Indian Co., apart from the VOC, this is the best known historic Dutch company. It will always be remembered thanks to the capture of the Spanish silver fleetby its commander, Piet Heyn. Extremely rare and a truly historical top piece. Modest start price.
Themes: BEFORE 1800
NETHERLANDS
Date: 26 July 1792
Quality: EF
Startprice: € 5000